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The game of thrones written in bone, conquistador edition

The tomb of Francisco Pizarro at the Cathedral of Lima.  Image Credit: Wikipedia.

The tomb of Francisco Pizarro at the Cathedral of Lima. Image Credit: Wikipedia.

The bones of infamous conquistador Don Francisco Pizarro (ca. 1476 – June 26th, 1541) rest in an ornate glass, marble, and bronze sarcophagus in a chapel in the Cathedral of Lima in Peru. Though Pizarro’s bones are now in a position of honor where they are visited by pilgrims and historians, this wasn’t always the case. A mummy, whose identity was lost to history, stole Pizarro’s post-mortem spotlight for decades due to a case of mistaken identity.

Francisco Pizarro was a Spanish conquistador who conquered Peru, decimated the Incan empire, and founded the city of Lima. Pizarro’s life was as treacherous as it was adventurous and could have inspired anything read about in the Game of Thrones series. This conqueror’s death was just as violent as his life and the marks his brutal assassination left on his bones were key to identifying his remains more than 400 years later.

Live by the Sword…

The life of Francisco Pizarro was complicated, rife with treachery, and filled with bloodshed. Below is a summary of his life.

Pizarro was born around 1476 in Trujillo, Spain, the illegitimate child of a poor farmer. He was illiterate and looked after his father’s pigs as a child.

In 1510, Francisco Pizarro embarked on a disastrous expedition to Colombia with Spanish explorer Alonzo de Ojeda. Then he joined Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 on his his voyage to Panama during which Balboa became the first European to discover the Pacific Ocean. Pizarro was the mayor and magistrate of Panama City from 1519-1523, and led two unsuccessful expeditions into Peru-one in 1524 and the second in 1526.

When the governor of Panama refused a third expedition, Pizarro decided to return to Spain to appeal to King Charles V in person. In 1528 he obtained a commission,the Capitulación de Toledo,from Emperor Charles V and Queen Isabella of Portugal to found a colony in South America.

Pizarro landed on the coast of South America in 1532, and this time he was joined by his brothers, Juan, Gonzalo, and Hernando. In November of 1532 he overthrew the Inca leader Atahualpa at the Battle of Cajamarca, even though Atahualpa and his forces ridiculously outnumbered Pizarro and his men.  Atahualpa had force that numbered 80,000, while Pizarro only had about 168 men.  According to legend, Atahualpa offered Pizarro a ransom large enough to fill a room if Pizarro spared his life. Pizarro agreed and got the gold, but executed the fallen king anyway.

In November of 1533 Pizarro and his men marched on Cuzco and conquered the Incan capital. He then made himself the governor the Incan territory. Three years later, in 1535, Pizarro founded the new capital city of Lima.

Over the next six years hostility and conflict arose between the Spanish conquerors. These tensions eventually split the conquistadors into two groups: one led by Francisco Pizarro, and the other led by Pizarro’s former friend, Diego de Almagro.

These tensions peaked in April 26, 1538, when Almagro engaged Pizarro’s brothers in the Battle of Las Salinas. After the Pizarro brothers’ victory, Hernando Pizarro captured and executed Almagro. Francisco confiscated Almagro’s territory and riches, leaving his son penniless.

On June 26, 1541 in Lima, Almagro’s son and his supporters planned to avenge his father’s death by brutally assassinating Francisco Pizarro after Sunday mass. Pizarro heard about the plot and avoided mass that day. However, the conspirators changed their plans and attacked the governor’s palace during Pizarro’s Sunday dinner, which had 20 guests including Pizarro’s half brother Francisco Martine de Alcántara. It was during this brutal battle that Pizarro was violently assassinated.

Misplaced Remains

The bodies of Pizarro and Alcántara were buried behind the cathedral the night of June 26th, 1541. Pizarro’s body would not rest in peace because it was reburied and relocated as the Cathedral of Lima was built and reconstructed over the centuries. The bones were moved so many times that church authorities lost track of it.

In 1545 Pizarro’s bones and swords were exhumed and placed in a wooden box under the altar of the cathedral. In 1551 Pizarro’s daughter gave the church 5,000 pieces of gold to construct a chapel in her father’s honor. According to church records Pizarro’s bones were deposited in a wooden box covered in black velvet in this area of the cathedral.

Pizarro’s bones were moved to a new church in July 4th 1606, when the Cathedral of Lima underwent reconstruction. His bones were moved again sometime between 1623 and 1629.

In 1661, during the verification process for the remains of St. Toribio, the first saint from Peru, church records documented the presence of a lead casket inside a wooden box covered in brown velvet. The lead casket had the following inscription: “Here is the skull of the Marquis Don Francisco Pizarro who discovered and won Peru and placed it under the crown of Castile.”

In 1891, the 350th anniversary of Pizarro’s death, a team of scientists was formed to positively identify the mummified body that church officials believed belonged to Francisco Pizarro. The body in question was missing its hands and genitals, and had been mummified by the dry air of Lima. They believed that the mutilations to the body could be attributed to Pizarro’s brutal death.

This research team relied on the testimony of church officials and phrenological landmarks to make their identification. After the mummified body was mistakenly identified as Francisco Pizarro, it was placed in a lavish sarcophagus for public display.

…Die by the Sword

In 1977, workmen who were cleaning the crypt under the altar in the Cathedral of Lima discovered two wooden boxes filled with bones. One of the wooden boxes held a lead casket with an inscription:

“Here is the skull of the Marquis Don Francisco Pizarro who discovered and won Peru and placed it under the crown of Castile.”

Since the Cathedral of Lima had been displaying a mummy they believed to be Francisco Pizarro since 1891, the church called in Dr. Hugo Ludeña, a Peruvian historian, to settle the matter. After examining the remains and church documents, Ludeña and his team of researchers found that the skull did indeed belong to Pizarro. But other Peruvian scholars disputed these findings.

So in 1984, forensic anthropologist William Maples and his colleague, Dr. Robert Benfer, were asked to travel to Peru to examine the skeletal remains in the two wooden boxes. In his book, Dead Men Do Tell Tales: The Strange and Fascinating Cases of a Forensic Anthropologist, Dr. Maples describes this process.

The larger wooden box, which he called box A, contained the comingled remains of the following:

The smaller wooden box, called box B, held some human bones and the lead casket with the inscription and a skull.

When articulated, the occipital condyles of the skull in the lead casket fit perfectly with the vertebrae of the skull-less post-cranial bones of the second elderly male in Box A.

The physical examination of the skull from the lead casket and the skull-less post-cranial bones of the elderly male from Box A revealed they belonged to a Caucasian male who was at least 60 years old, and stood between 65 and 69 inches (1.65 and 17.5 meters) tall. Healed fractures and arthritis revealed a man who lived an active and violent life. The biological profile of these skeletal remains corresponds to what we know about Pizarro, who was thought to be about 63 or 65 years old when he died.

The physical examination also revealed numerous perimortem injuries to the right side of the body, which would be consistent with a right-handed swordsman. Maples noted injuries that caused tool marks on the bones, these include:

The Killing of Pizarro / Paris. c1891. Image Credit: The Library of Congress.

These injuries fit nicely with the historical accounts of Pizarro’s assassination. Because a few of Pizarro’s attackers survived to be interrogated, we know what happened that night in the governor’s palace in 1541.

As Don Francisco Pizarro sat down to Sunday with his 20 guests, Almagro and his supporters charged the walls of the governor’s palace to seek revenge. Reports vary about the number of attackers, some say seven men and others report as many as 25 men. Most of Pizarro’s guests ran off, but three or four men stayed behind to help defend the governor, including Alcántara.

As Pizarro tried to fight off his assassins, he received a rapier wound to his throat that incapacitated him.  He was stabbed a few more times in the neck before he went down. As Pizarro fell to the floor, his assassins surrounded him and repeatedly stabbed him.

Because the biological profile and the wounds were consistent with historical accounts, Maples and Benfer believed these bones could indeed belong to Francisco Pizarro. To be sure they examined the mummy that had been identified as Pizarro in 1891. They found that the mummy belonged to a male who was about 65 inches tall who had a gracile, or small, skeleton. Despite the mummies missing hands and genitals, the bones showed no signs of an active or violent life, and lacked evidence of wounds or injury.  They believed that these remains belonged to man who was a scholar or a man of the church.

Maples and Benfer identified the skull in the lead casket and the skull-less post-cranial bones of an elderly man in Box A as Don Francisco Pizarro, reinforcing Dr. Hugo Ludeña’s findings in 1977. In 1985 Pizarro’s bones were placed in the ornate sarcophagus now on display at the Cathedral of Lima and funeral rites were performed that Pizarro himself had asked for in his will.

The other bodies in Box A could not be positively identified. The bones of the 2 children may belong to two of Pizarro’s children. The female skeleton may belong to Alcántara’s wife, and the skeleton of the other elderly male maybe Alcántara himself.

Dr. Hugo Ludeña has some great photographs from his investigation in 1977 and the Maples and Benfer investigation in 1984 on his website.


Maples, W. R. (1995). Dead men do tell Tales: The strange and fascinating cases of a forensic anthropologist. New York, NY: Broadway Books.

Montalbano, W. D. (1985). Wrong bones in that sarcophagus : 444 years ;ater, mystery of Pizarro is laid to rest. Retrieved on May 25, 2014 from:


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